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When it comes to Temperatures

Basalt Fibers can withstand continuous temperatures up to approx. 1,040 degrees F and short term peak temperatures of up to 1,300 degrees F.

In the eyes of many people, these values are considered to be conservative. Often, companies post much higher values; but Basalt is Basalt, the chemical composition is normally not altered. Having that said, as Basalt is mined in various locations, you will experience various qualities, plus the quality can change as the mines are explored. The manufacturer of the Basalt Fiber spends a good amount of effort to keep the quality consistent.

The engineer likes to compare data from Basalt with other technical fibers and can become difficult to make the choice which of the values are correct. When comparing to alternatives, a good rule of thumb is that the values are about 250 degrees F higher than in the case of traditional E-Glass. The traditional E-Glass is the material which contains Boron. Boron free Glass Fibers are molten at higher temperatures and therefore also withstand higher temperatures.

When considering temperature resistances, it is important to know a few very important influencing factors: 

  • Does the temperature come from one side or from both sides of the product?
    • reason is that when heat can be dissipated, the product will be able to withstand higher temperatures (e.g. fire barrier/ welding blanket). If the heat comes from front & back or even from all sides, heat cannot be conducted away from the product and it breaks down faster.
  • How dense is the Product?
    • If the product has a high density, it can absorb more heat and deal with it better than if it has a low density.
  • Is airflow available?
    • We all know the effect of the difference in the hot summer; if wind is present, it will help to cool down.

We recommend to ask for the ASTM used to test the materials. Then you will have a true comparison!

Heat & Strength

In some applications, it is critical to have a product which holds up when being faced with elevated temperatures. A good example is "Flexible Expansion Joints". Occasionally people utilize the standard E-Glass fabric. At elevated temperatures, the fabric will loose some strength and the product wears out faster. When utilizing a higher temperature resistant material, in most cases, the strength holds up better at elevated temperatures. In these cases, the engineer needs to compare which material provides more longevity. Basalt can be one of those candidates when comparing to the traditional E-Glass. - The same would apply to abrasion resistances.

... click here to read more about Culimeta America, Inc.

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Texturizing & Weaving Basalt

Below is a direct comparison of two fabrics.

One is made from a standard Basalt Fiber (see fabric and the yarns on the top of the first picture).

The other is made from a texturized yarn (see fabric and the yarns on the bottom of the first picture).

The process of texturizing has been described on this site. For more information pertaining to that: ... more about air texturizing

FINATEX INTERNATIONAL can recommend and source the machinery to make an air texturized fiber; Training can be possibly arranged, as well.

Basalt Texturized

Texturized Basalt Fibers

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Fabric made from texturized Basalt Fibers.

FINATEX INTERNATIONAL can recommend, source erect and train on weaving equipment to make these types of fabrics.

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.... more about us: More about Finatex International

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Basalt Hybrid woven Technical Fibers

For demonstration purposes, we wove a fabric with 100% fiberglass first and then we replaced the fiberglass filling with a Basalt Roving.

The white color is the fiberglass, the olive-brown color is the basalt.

This type of construction, when two or more technical fibers are mixed or blended or woven into a fabric, is called a hybrid.

The result of this particular Hybrid is  an increase in strength in the filling direction (due to the Basalt being used in the filling)

While this demonstration  shows a very simply hybrid version made from Basalt and Fiberglass, more complicated and complex products can be engineered. As an example,  S2-Glass, Kevlar or Carbon Fibers can be incorporated, either in the warp or in the fill direction or in combination of same. The fabric can have sections of just S2-Glass, then perhaps Carbon or Kevlar and then again S2 Glass and all of it can be combined by a Basalt Roving.

This unique ability allows to engineer products with various properties along one fabric.

Example Ballistic Application

Say you have a wall 12 ft wide; and say you need a high strength ballistic fiber on the left side of this wall, such as S2-Glass. Then comes a section you need to have an electromagnetic shield. This would be the section for Basalt. You may have a need for a light weight panel and decide to make use of carbon fiber and all of this could be woven into one fabric.

This example may not find a direct application and is just meant to explain some of the possibilities, but we hope it increases the reader's creativity for some interesting new designs.

We welcome to discuss the ideas you have!

... more about Allendale Fibertech Corporation

NEW ALLENDALE-2

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Textile Process – Lamination

Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat, pressure, welding, or adhesives

 

1 Needlefelt3-e1391732073395-150x150 stacks_image_1113

 

Courtsey of Allendale Fibertech Corporation

NEW ALLENDALE-2

 

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Textile Process – Twisting

Twisting is the process which applies turns to one or multiple strands of yarns.

Turns can be in S-Direction and they can be in Z-direction.

Depending on the intended following production process, the amount of turns/ inch or turns / m can vary.

For better visibility, following is an example of a twisted cotton strand:

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

You can now count how many turns/ inch or per cm have been applied.

In general, the larger the amount of turns / inch, the higher the cost, as it takes the machine longer to manufacture the required count.

While Rovings have almost no or even zero twist, fine yarns usually will only be available with a low twist count. A converter will then apply higher twist counts.

 

Reasons to twist Yarns: 

  • protection of the fiber
  • increase tensile strength
  • creating hybrid fibers with various properties
  • other

There are two main twisting processes:

a) Ring twisting

b) Direct Cabling or “false twisting”

Glass Fibers have a “recall” effect, they tend to twist or turn back into the original form. Therefore, when twisting two strands together, this needs to be taken into account.

Ring Twisting: 

Ring twisting consist of two production processes:

Process 1:

Individual strands will be first twisted in one direction, in most cases Z-Direction.

Process 2:

In the second conversion process, two or more single strands will be put together while twisting them now in the opposite direction, in this case in the S-Direction.

This way, 2 up to 12 or even more strands can be twisted together and they are not effected by the “recall”-effect when twisted right.

The cones the materials are twisted on are called “milk bottle” bobbins, due to the shape.

Direct Cabling: 

Direct cabling process is only one production step. While one strand of yarn stays in the original direction, the second strand of yarn will be wrapped around the other.

Due to only one required production process, this method is considered to be more cost effective.

The cones the materials are twisted on are cylindrical.

Currently, direct cabling can only be done with two strands, while ring twisting is more flexible and can be many fold.

Courtsey of Glass-fiber.com

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Textile Process – Weaving, Slashing, Warping

The process in brief:

In weaving cloth, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom. The yarn that is inserted over-and-under the warp threads is called the weft, woof, or filler. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end or end. Warp means “that which is thrown across” (OldEnglish wearp, from weorpan, to throw, cf.German werfenDutch werpen).

Very simple looms use a spiral warp, in which a single, very long yarn is wound around a pair of sticks or beams in a spiral pattern to make up the warp.

Because the warp is held under high tension during the entire process of weaving and warp yarn must be strong, yarn for warp ends is usually spun and plied fiber. Traditional fibers for warping are woollinenalpaca, and silk. With the improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution, it became possible to make cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp in mechanized weaving. Later, artificial or man-made fibers such as nylon rayon or glass fibers were employed.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warp_(weaving)

In Glass Fiber weaving, the most common weave patterns are

  • Basket Weave
  • Plain Weave
  • Satin Weave
  • Twill & Broken Twill Weave

 Basket Weave:

In Basket weave or Panama weave, groups of warp and weft threads are interlaced so that they form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each group of weft threads crosses an equal number of warp threads by going over one group, then under the next, and so on. The next group of weft threads goes under the warp threads that its neighbor went over, and vice versa.

Basketweave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance made of two or more threads in each group.

Basketsweave

Plain Weave:

Schematic of a plain weave, which would be woven by a shuttle loom (left).

The right schematic represents the modern Plain weave, as the fiber is not anymore continuous throughout multiple sheddings, but it is cut after each shedding takes place.

Warp_and_weftPlainWeave

Allthough shuttle looms are still in use mostly for narrow fabrics, they have been widely replaced by other, more efficient weaving technology:

Airjet Weaving * Projectile Weaving * Rapier Loom Weaving * Waterjet weaving.

 Satin Weave:

The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin and where the weft yarn lies on top of the warp yarns in weft-faced satins. These floats explain the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres, which have fewer tucks.

In glass fiber weaving, satin fabrics are popular when high drape ability is required. If the fabric has to be layed around corner or edges.

This Schematic also shows a traditional shuttle loom woven Satin Pattern.

Satin_weave_in_silk

 Twill Weave:

Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same. The front side of the twill is the technical face; the back is called the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale; it is usually more durable, more attractive, most often used as the fashion side of the fabric, and the side visible during weaving. If there are warp floats on the technical face (i.e., if the warp crosses over two or more wefts), there will be filling floats (the weft will cross over two or more warps) on the technical back. If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no up and down as they are woven.

The fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move more freely, and thus they are softer, more pliable, and drape better than plain-weave textiles. Twills also recover from wrinkles better than plain-weave fabrics do. When there are fewer interlacings, yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. In twills and higher counts, the fabric is more durable.

Schematic of Twill Woven Fabric:

TwillWeave

Weaving Glass Fibers:

Due to the low elongation coefficient (% of stretch before it breaks) of approx. 2.0 – 3.5 %, weaving Glass Fibers require very precise machine adjustments. It becomes a little simpler when the yarns have been texturized, as the extra bulk in essence increases the elongation coefficient by the grade of texture.

Due to the “brittle” nature of glass fibers, the finer yarns require preparation to withstand the harsh friction caused by the reed. This preparation is called Slashing.

Slashing: 

While Roving or texturized yarns typically do not need any special additional treatment of seizing, the finer yarns typically do.

Slashing is a process in which the strand will be applied an additional seizing, aiding the weaving process. Without this additional seizing, the yarn in the warp will be starting to create “fuzz” from broken filaments. This is due to the reed rupturing the warp strands. The fuzz in return will influence the shedding behavior of the neighboring fibers. This may cause those fibers not to clearly separate from each other, when the shedding takes place. This will result in either a simple miss pick or in a complete yarn breakage in the warp.

The slashing typically handles two production steps in one;

a) application of the required additional seizing

b) warping the strands to a loom beam. (Note:Slashing can also be offered on a “bobbin-to-bobbin”-process, as well.)

In case of slashed bobbins, a second process will have to take place, which is called warping.

Warping: 

Warping is the process in which single strands of fibers (yarns) will be wound to a beam which is called a loombeam. This loombeam can then be either attached or connected to the weaving loom or put on a separate A-Phrame construction.

Depending on the desired weave construction, at times, two loombeams can be implemented. In that case, a top beam stand is mounted to the machine, holding the second beam.

There are three basic Warping Techniques:

a) Sample Warping

Sample Warping is typically for around 30 yards or under 100 yards, as needed, just for weaving samples. Other lengths apply, but in essence it is meant for short runs.

b) Sectional Warping

A Sectional Warper draws e.g. 200 single ends at a time and winds it to a loombeam. This is then called a section. After the desired quantity has been wound, e.g. 5,000 yards, the second section will be applied with the same yard count. In order to do so, the warper will be moved a small distance on a rail system, to be centered again in front of the next section. This process will be repeated, until the desired total end count has been reached.

C) Direct Warping

A Direct Warper draws all the required strands at one time and applies the desired quantity of yards in this one process. Therefore, while Sectional Warping and Direct Warping both result in the same end count with the desired max quantity per strand, the sectional warping process calls for multiple production steps, while the Direct Warper produces it in one production step.

The choice of the correct warping system depends on the mill’s setup.

Caution with warping, as glass fiber has a very low elongation coefficient, precise machine adjustments and tension systems are required.

Creel Weaving: 

More dense or heavier yarns, around 270 tex and up, are preferably woven on creels.

Two basic creel designs:

a) Pin Creel

Here, the bobbin is stuck on a pin.

B) Shelf Creel

Here the bobbin stands on a shelf.

While there are many different designs of pin creels or shelf creels, it appears that the shelf creel provides more flexibility, as some glass fiber manufacturers provide rovings for inside and some for outside unwinding. Rovings with inside unwinding cannot be used for pin creels.

Courtsey of Glass-fiber.com

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Textile Process – Air Texturizing

The process in brief:

During the air texturizing process, multifilament yarns are conducted through a nozzle where high pressured air mechanically bulks them up. During this process, the filaments remain unbroken, for the most part. When using multiple strands, those are then mechanically bonded and can be processed as a “One-Strand Fiber”.

Reasons for air texturizing: 

  • Air texturizing increases the yarn density
  • allows for hybrid strand making with blended properties
  • when woven, it increase the insulation values (reduction of k-values)
  • Decorational effect in fabrics for homes or public buildings (wall paper or window sheds)

There are two different kind of air texturizing:

a) Parallel texturizing and

b) Effect texturizing

Parallel Texturized yarns are more comparable to a simple assembly of multiple strands; this version of texturizing is desired to

  • increase the insulation values,to
  • improve the weave in the final woven cloth,or to
  • increase abrasion resistances in the final product,

thus parallel texturizing has a Technical value.

Effect Texturized yarns can be “looped” or “knotted”. The loop effect is achieved by one strand of yarn being fed into the nozzle at a higher speed than the an other strand of yarn.

Those effects are mostly used in decoration applications for woven fabrics, e.g. fiberglass wall papers,

this way, the effect texturizing has an Aesthetic value.

Texturizing can also be applied to multifilaments of different chemical or physical properties, which allows to manufacture hybrid versions. Hybrids can be engineered towards the exact desired mechanical and thermal properties.

Depending on later applications, the market offers

a) without any additional seizing

b) with starch oil seizing

c) with acrylic seizing

These seizings are not be confused with the seizings which are applied to the fibers when extruded from the bushing during the melting process. a) and b) are typically applied during the actually texturizing process.

Some of the advantages for an applied seizing can be

  • improved locking of the grade of applied texture
  • reduced abrasion during the following intended textile process

However, there can be disadvantages, as the additional seizing can contribute to increased off-gassing when heat is applied. This also translates into a higher LOI (Loss On Ignition).

Illustration of air texturized yarns and bobbins (these are from glass).

Texturized-Yarn TexturizedYarn-Bobbinhorizontal TexturizedYarn-BobbinVertical

Courtsey of Glass-fiber.com

Below an example from Basalt:

Basalt Texturized

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Textile Process – Chopping

Rotary Chopping: 

A very consistent way of chopping is done in a rotary process. A drum with a selected blade count, spaced out to the desired fiber length achieves a very high accuracy.

A predetermined strand count will be fed into the rotary chopping mechanism. The actual chopping is then done by the means of crushing the fiber, rather than cutting it. This is possible, due to the fact that glass fibers are brittle by nature.

By feeding multiple strands at the same time, you can mix fibers with various properties, as well. This allows for a predictive and cost effective blend of fibers with a property mix for optimal efficiency in the following application.

Doing so, blended chopped fibers allow for more cost effective solutions or to create complete new niche markets.

Guillotine Chopping: 

Guillotine Chopping is often done when recycling the waste materials come from the glass fiber manufacturer.

The input material can be “Spin-cakes” or other materials which have not passed the inspections. In order to be able to chop a cake, it is necessary to break it down in smaller pieces. This can be done with a table saw like process. After multiple additional chopping processes, the fibers may have somewhat more random lengths than resulting from a Rotary Chopping.

During the next steps, the fibers can be opened, dried and baled and sent to the next intended application as e.g.

a) mechanically bound, needled into a “Needlemat” for industrial insulation

b) chemically bound into an insulation batting for automotive or commercial or industrial use

c) used as a reinforcement product for panel making

 

Courtsey of glass-fiber.com

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Basalt-Fibers

To our knowledge, Basalt-Fibers are currently not manufactured in the USA. There are only a hand full of manufacturers. The properties of Basalt suggest great niche applications between traditional E-Glass Fibers and S-Glass, Carbon, or other Fibers used for thermal resistant or fiber reinforcing products (FRP).

Other countries in Asia and in Europe seem to have manufacturing sites and the markets are somewhat more developed than in the USA.

We hope this site provides information and tools to develop the market in the USA.

Feel free to contact us for questions you may have or send us ideas and suggestions.

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